Vatican City Listeni/ˈvætɨkən ˈsɪti/, officially Vatican City State (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano; pronounced [ˈstaːto della t͡ʃitˈta (d)del vatiˈkaːno]), is one of the last six remaining absolute monarchies whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome. It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of around 840. This makes Vatican City the smallest internationally recognized independent state in the world by both area and population.
Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state, ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's official residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace. The Popes have generally resided in the area that in 1929 became Vatican City since the return from Avignon in 1377, but have also at times resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome and elsewhere.
The independent city-state was established in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty, signed by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, on behalf of Pope Pius XI and by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. The treaty spoke of it as a new creation, not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756–1870) that had previously encompassed much of central Italy. Vatican City is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe.
In the city, there are cultural sites such as St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel and the Vatican Museums. They feature some of the world's most famous paintings and sculptures. The unique economy of Vatican City is supported financially by the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
First series (2002–2005)
The initial series of Vatican euro coins featured an effigy of Pope John Paul II. They were issued only in collector sets and bore an extreme markup with the 2002 collector set costing well over a thousand euro.
Second series (2005–2006)
Following the death of Pope John Paul II in April 2005, the Vatican issued special coins during the period of Sede vacante depicting the emblem of the Apostolic Chamber (i.e. two crossed keys beneath an umbraculum, or umbrella) and the coat of arms of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, at the time Cardinal Eduardo Martínez Somalo.
Third series (2006–2013)
When the new pope was elected, the third series of Vatican euro coins were issued on 27 April 2006 and feature the effigy of Pope Benedict XVI. The coins carry an inscription "Città del Vaticano" and the twelve stars of Europe. The details of this design are published in the Official Journal of the European Union.
Fourth series (2014–present)
A series of Vatican euro coins featuring effigies of Pope Francis was released in March 2014. Three different images of Francis were used.
Circulating Mintage quantities
FV €0.01 €0.02 €0.05 €0.10 €0.20 €0.50 €1.00 €2.00
2002 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000
2008 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400
2009 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400 6,400
2010 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 2,190,704 6,000 6,000
2011 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 2,174,197 6,000 6,000
2012 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 1,604,690 6,000 6,000